Vaccine Conversations

30 01 2012

Parents have questions about the health and care of their children. It’s normal!

They want to know (for instance) what to give a child who has a high fever, when a multivitamin is appropriate, and if vaccines are safe and necessary.

It’s that last bit that has many of us searching for the words that parents want to hear. When a parent asks if vaccines are safe and necessary, it’s not enough to simply say yes. Parents want more information, and here are a few resources that will help you provide answers.

CDC has a section on their website that addresses the question of how to talk to parents and others about vaccines. There are materials for talking to specific groups, such as college-age students, healthcare workers, or pregnant women. There are materials to share with parents who are choosing not to vaccinate or who have questions about immunization schedules. There’s a one-pager for providers that’s handy to have. Basically, this site has gobs of resources—more than we have room for here—and is worth a long look.

The Colorado Foundation for Medical Care and Every Child by Two have a CE for nurses that offers “practical knowledge and skills on vaccine safety and patient communication.” It’s provided in webinar format and wraps up on 29 November, 2012. Try to get it on your calendars before then.

The Vaccine Education Center at CHOP has an excellent menu of articles written in palatable form for non-scientists. Few explain the facts behind vaccines better than Dr. Paul Offit, the Center’s director. This site is one of our favorites.

Immunization Action Coalition keeps a list of resources for those who speak with parents about vaccines. It’s a good page to bookmark.

We found a nice slideset by a nurse from GSK that provides answers to parents’ questions. It may be something you would want to share with your staff.

At PKIDs, we have several videos of parents sharing their children’s stories. Sometimes it helps to connect parent-to-parent. In addition to PKIDs, there’s ShotByShot, National Meningitis Association, and Families Fighting Flu—all of whom have videos to share.

While poking around, we found many more helpful sites, but when they were boiled down to their essences, the resources provided could be found in one of the sites listed above.

If you know of a site that has materials useful to the vaccine conversation, we’d love to hear from you in the comments.

By Trish Parnell

Image courtesy of Norman Rockwell Museum





Ask Emily

26 01 2012

I’ve just read that there’s a kind of tuberculosis making a comeback that doesn’t respond to any known TB drugs. How does that happen and can anything be done to treat it or stop its spread?

Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial infection, usually of the lungs, although it can invade other tissues.

A healthy person may be infected but not show symptoms, but someone with an active infection may have a cough with blood in the sputum, night sweats, weight loss, and fever. The bacteria spread through coughs or sneezes.

As with seemingly all infections we treat with antibiotics, the TB bacterium has evolved to evade the arsenal of medications we throw at it.

While many cases still resolve after the long-term antibiotic treatment required (6 months or more), often people with the infection begin to feel better or get tired of the unpleasant side effects and will cease the therapy.

As with other similar situations with antibiotics, this premature cessation of therapy can give resistant bacteria the upper hand. The outcome is different grades of TB infection, based on the level of resistance. TB that resists most but not all drugs is multidrug-resistant. TB that resists all but drugs of last resort is extensively drug-resistant, and TB that responds to no antibiotics at all is totally drug-resistant (TDR).

That last form of TB strikes fear into the hearts of epidemiologists and public health officials because it is an infectious disease nightmare.

For a series of reasons ranging from an inability of low-resource countries to test for and detect TB to a lapse in treatment adherence because of poor healthcare management and patient follow-up, the most resistant forms of TB often emerge in areas poorly equipped to control it. Thus, when a report surfaced in January 2012 that a research team had identified 12 cases of TDR TB in India, on the heels of 15 identified cases in Iran in 2006, the worldwide response was, essentially, anxiety and fear.

The fear is that if this TDR form of TB gains a stronger foothold in overcrowded conditions where people walk ill and undiagnosed, it would be a plane flight away from toeholds anywhere else in the world. While humanity dealt with incurable and fatal TB for millennia before antibiotics started to fight back in the 1940s, this resurgence at a time when technology can take a disease around the world in a matter of hours adds a whole new dimension to the threat.

There is, of course, already the threat on the ground in India, where one of the cases is a 13-year-old girl and another of the people in the cohort has died from the disease. But lest anyone think that in their comfortable home in the West they are sheltered from threat, the news the day I wrote this contained reports of a student with TB in Fort Wayne, Indiana, which precipitated notification to 100 students who may have come in contact with their classmate. Another student in Westlake, Ohio, also had been diagnosed with TB, precipitating community action to make people aware of symptoms and prevention of spread.

The communities in these cases benefited from a public health surveillance program that moved into action once each diagnosis was made. But in India, the result has led to public health chaos, with officials arguing over whether or not some of the cases truly were TDR TB. That does not change the fact that TDR TB has already been identified in Iran, or the economic and healthcare gaps that will only continue to contribute to the likelihood of its spread.

Do you have a question for Emily? Send it to: pkids@pkids.org

By Emily Willingham

Video courtesy of IBNLive





Free Vax Ads – Please Use!

23 01 2012

Capturing the attention of teens and young adults isn’t easy. They see and hear a lot of info throughout the day and penetrating that noise with a message to vaccinate is difficult.

We developed these ads for anyone to use (see some samples below). So, feel free to use them and add your org’s name and contact info to them.

Click on an image to see a larger version then hit the Back button to return to the post:

If you have any materials you’d like to share with other vaccine educators, please add a link and/or description in the comments. Sharing such resources is a money-saver for all of us, and who doesn’t need that in today’s economy?





Safer Sex (We Hope)

19 01 2012

Warning: This article contains explicit sexual information. It has been adapted from a piece written for PKIDs’ Pediatric Hepatitis Report. We encourage young people to talk with their parents and healthcare providers about safer sex and abstinence before becoming sexually active. The methods of disease prevention described in this post are not guaranteed to work. You may practice safer sex and still acquire an STD.

Anyone can become infected with a sexually transmitted disease (STD). CDC estimates that 19 million new infections occur each year, almost half of them among young people ages 15 to 24.

Many people are unaware they have an infection. Some diseases that can be transmitted sexually may also be transmitted during the birthing process, or through a blood transfusion. You may be living with hepatitis B or herpes or human papilloma virus (HPV) and not know it.

For maximum prevention, teens and adults should either abstain from sex or always practice “safer sex,” although abstinence is the more sure method of STD prevention.

What Is Safer Sex?

Safer sex means taking action to make sure no one gets their partner’s blood, semen or vaginal fluids in their body. Similarly, safer sex means you make sure your own body fluids don’t enter your partner.

With safer sex, no body fluids enter a vagina, anus or mouth (during vaginal, anal or oral intercourse) or come into contact with mucous membranes, such as around the eyes, gums, or nostrils.

The best way to prevent body fluids from reaching someone during intercourse is to use a condom. A condom is a sheath that fits over the penis. It can be made of latex (the safest condom available), plastic or animal tissue. It is also called a rubber, safe or jimmy.

Today, nearly as many women as men buy and carry condoms. It catches a man’s semen before, during and after he ejaculates. Some condoms have a nipple-shaped tip to hold the semen so it does not spill out.

Experts consistently recommend latex because some animal tissue, such as lambskin, has pores small enough for sexually transmitted viruses or bacteria to pass through. Polyurethane condoms break more often than latex.

A study cited by Planned Parenthood observed heterosexual couples where one partner was HIV-infected and the other was not for an average of 20 months. It found:

  • None of the uninfected partners among the 124 couples who used condoms consistently and correctly for vaginal or anal intercourse became infected with HIV.
  • About 10 percent of the uninfected partners (12 of 121) became infected when condoms were used inconsistently for vaginal or anal intercourse.
  • Of the 121 couples that used condoms inconsistently, 61 used condoms for at least half of their sexual contacts and 60 rarely or never used condoms. The rate of infection was 10.3 percent for the couples using condoms inconsistently and 15 percent for couples not using condoms.

In short, nothing guards against STDs like a latex condom and other safer sex practices. Spermicidal foams and jellies, diaphragms, implants and other devices do not block body fluids and may not kill all of the harmful bacteria and viruses in your partner’s secretions.

The female condom fits inside the vagina like the diaphragm and also covers the vulva. It is a pouch with flexible rings that is inserted into the vagina. It has the advantage of not requiring a man to maintain an erection during use. Although it is not as effective as the male condom, the female condom is an option for women who want some protection against viral hepatitis, STDs and unintended pregnancies.

The birth control pill, IUDs, vasectomies, tubal sterilizations and other methods of birth control offer great protection against pregnancy, but no protection against STDs. Many people use latex condoms along with these birth control methods for the best protection against both pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections.

Even Oral Sex Requires a Condom

Oral sex may not get one pregnant, but it can still transmit disease.

It is safer to put a condom on the penis before beginning oral sex to guard against secretions that may carry infection. It is important not to get secretions or semen in the mouth. A sore throat or small cuts on the gums may serve as entryways for viruses.

Vaginal secretions can also carry viruses, especially if a woman is having her period. Latex condoms can be cut with a scissors up the middle for oral sex on the vulva or anus. Latex dams or squares, which are thicker than plastic wrap and more likely to resist tearing, may be used. Latex gloves also provide STD protection.

Proper Use of Condoms

A condom just might save a life, and should be treated like the valuable tool it is. Store condoms in a cool, dry place. Long exposure to air, heat or light makes them more breakable. Do not store them continually in a back pocket, wallet, purse or glove compartment.

Check the expiration date to make sure the condom is fresh and safe. Throw away condoms that have expired, been exposed to heat, carried around in a wallet, or washed in the washer or dried in the dryer. If they appear dry, stiff or sticky, toss them. If there are any doubts about a condom, buy a new one.

Condoms usually come rolled into a ring shape. They are individually sealed in aluminum foil or plastic. When opening the condom package, do it carefully to avoid tearing the condom.

To minimize mistakes, both partners should know how to put on and use a condom. Planned Parenthood Federation recommends learning in a safe place free of pressure or frustration. Practice on one’s own penis or on a penis-shaped object like a ketchup bottle, banana or cucumber.

To ensure maximum protection, never use a condom twice and always put a new condom on an erect penis before there’s any genital, anal or oral contact.

If intercourse has already begun, pulling out and putting on a condom right before ejaculation may be too late for protection against STDs and pregnancy.

The male should put on a condom as early as possible at the very beginning of sex play rather than waiting until his partner is ready for penetration. It’s also a good idea to have extra, new condoms around in case a condom is put on too soon or if he loses his erection.

A condom is like a sock, with a right and wrong side. First, unroll it about half an inch to see in which direction it is unrolling. Then put it on. If a male has not been circumcised, pull the foreskin back first. It should unroll easily down the penis. If it starts off on the wrong side, try again with a new condom. Don’t be afraid to practice ahead of time.

Hold the tip of the condom gently between the fingers as it rolls down. This keeps out air bubbles or pockets that can increase the chance of a condom breaking. It also leaves space at the end for the semen. Roll the condom down as far as it will go.

Anal intercourse increases the chance of STDs tremendously, because there can be small tears or bruises in the anus during sex, which makes one tremendously vulnerable to bloodborne infections like viral hepatitis and HIV.

For anal intercourse, lots of lubrication is helpful. Using a water-based lubricant is also helpful for vaginal intercourse. The lubricant goes on after the condom is put on, not before, or else it could allow the condom to slip off easily. Add more lubrication often. Dry condoms break more easily than properly-lubricated ones.

Using lubricant will make things go smoother and give added protection. Lubrication is especially helpful for women when they have intercourse for the first time, or if there is a tendency for soreness.

Always use a water-based lubricant (such as KY Jelly, Astroglide, Aqua Lube, Wet, Foreplay, or Probe) because oil breaks latex. Don’t use vaseline, hand creams or lotions as a lubricant. Also, treatments for yeast infections may contain oil and may break latex.

After ejaculation, hold the condom at the bottom of the penis so it doesn’t slip off. Try to pull out while still erect or hard. The condom comes off only after the penis is completely out of the partner.

Use a condom only once.

Never use the same condom for vaginal and anal intercourse.

Talk Contraception Before the Heat of the Moment

It may be embarrassing to talk to a partner about contraception and condoms, but it’s essential, and should be done before a sexual situation begins. Don’t wait until the heat of passion takes over. It can overwhelm good intentions.

Be honest about feelings and needs. Silence is not a virtue in this situation. Talking about condoms will make it easier for both partners. It can help create a relaxed mood and make sex even more enjoyable and safe.

Embarrassment should not become a health risk and increase chances of infection. It’s important for partners to be open and share health concerns and sexual health history.

By PKIDs staff





Telling Our Kids They’re Infected With Hepatitis or HIV

16 01 2012

If hearing your child is infected with HIV or hepatitis B or C is the worst that can happen to a parent, telling your child about the infection runs a close second.

When should a parent disclose? How should they tell them? What will a child ask? Will they ever forgive the parents who infected them? Are silence and secrecy justified to protect a child from a painful diagnosis?

Two pioneers who have peered into the disclosure cauldron are Lori W. Wiener, coordinator of the Pediatric HIV Psycho-Social Support and Research Program at the National Institutes of Health, and Heidi Haiken, coordinator of Social Work at the Francois Xavier Bagnoud Center in Newark, N.J., an innovative program that works with parents and children with HIV.

For more than 10 years, Haiken and Wiener have worked with hundreds of families infected with and affected by HIV on the emotional and social issues related to the disease. Wiener, who has a PhD, has researched and written about the impact of disclosure on family members.

Their combined experiences have produced two cardinal rules for parents of children infected with chronic, viral infectious diseases:

  1. Never lie. You don’t have to name the disease if children are very young, but never, never lie. The damage to the parent-child relationship will surpass any short-lived benefits gained by deceit.
  2. Disclose as early as you can, especially once kids start asking questions. The longer you wait, the harder it gets and the greater your chance of undermining your child’s trust in you.

“We even tell parents who come to the center that if they don’t tell the kids by the time they reach sexual maturity, we will,” Haiken said. “But of course it’s much, much healthier to have this information come from the parents.”

Both women acknowledge that disclosing is very traumatic for parents. “For some parents, it’s just devastating,” said Haiken. “They feel guilt because they infected the child because of their past sexual behavior or drug use. They feel guilt that the child has to suffer. Even for parents of children who contracted it from transfusions or are adopted, disclosure is extremely difficult.”

Wiener, who has written several research papers on this topic, found the longer parents withheld the diagnosis, the more embedded the lies became and the harder it became to disclose the truth. “Parents often fear that once they disclose new and different information, that their child will no longer trust them,” she said. “Following disclosure, many of these children feel embarrassed that other people in their family have been aware of the diagnosis before they had been informed. Once disclosure takes place, these issues and feelings can be successfully dealt with in individual and group counseling sessions with parents and children.”

Haiken and other social workers at the center work hard to help parents work through their guilt, or at least face it without flinching, before they disclose.

“I tell them you didn’t mean for this to happen, it’s clear you never wanted to hurt your child, look at all the wonderful things you’ve done for your child,” said Haiken. “After a while they get there, they see it, but it’s still very difficult. No parent ever wants to infect her child. It’s something they felt they had no control over.”

In terms of disclosure, parents who are themselves living with HIV have additional challenges to face. They fear disclosing their own life-threatening disease to their children. But generally, says Wiener, by the time children reach ages 6 to 10, they realize the consequence and finality of death. It is useless to shield children this age from the knowledge that their parents have a serious or terminal illness.

The disclosure process, timetable and style are often dictated by the parents’ health. Can they focus on their kids and execute disclosure, or are their own health problems overwhelming? Are they getting the support and time they need or are their own medications, insurance forms and other factors too overwhelming?

“Foster or adoptive parents have the luxury of not having to worry about their own illnesses, so the emotional and financial stress on the entire family may not be as intense,” noted Haiken.

The journey to disclosure begins early, says Wiener. “The child and parent should first have a sense of trust—that is the highest priority.” Disclosure occurs little by little in age-appropriate ways as soon as a child can communicate. Just like talking about adoption, it’s always on the table, though not all the details or medical terms may be exposed just yet.

Ideally, when the parent discloses the conversation should go something like this, suggests Wiener.

“Do you remember when I told you that you had a germ in your blood? That’s why we have blood work done every year. (And) Do you remember I told you that you got the germ from blood? Well, that germ is a virus that is called HIV or hepatitis….”

“You see, the disclosure dialogue is a constant building process,” she said. “If the child asks why the parent didn’t tell them earlier, the parent needs to be able to say, ‘I never lied to you, I told you what was wrong, I just hadn’t told you name of the virus.”

It may take a child weeks, months or years to absorb the diagnosis. “Try to be where the child is at when they ask questions,” wrote Wiener. “Let the child know that no matter how difficult the subject matter, he or she can always ask questions or share feelings. Be careful, however, not to provide more information than the child wants or is prepared for. They may not be ready for a virology discussion.

“You never want to be in the position of telling a 12 year-old about his or her disease that you have never even referred to before,” she added. “That is my main concern in the disclosure process. We’ve interviewed a lot of children who have been disclosed to. Most felt they had been told at the right age and by the right person except those whose parents had a doctor tell them. Those were the only kids who remained upset about the disclosure process.”

At NIH, counselors work intensely with parents of HIV-infected children to prepare them for the disclosure discussion. Social workers even have parents write out what they will tell their children and then play the part of the child in role-play situations. Generally, parents should be prepared to answer the following questions, depending on the child’s age and development. (Some questions apply if the parent is infected also.)

Why did this happen to you?

Where did you get it from?

Are you going to die?

Am I the reason you got sick?

Who else in the family has it?

Why do I have it?

Why don’t (siblings) have it?

Am I going to die?

Will this hurt?

Who else knows I have this?

Who can I tell?

What will happen to me and (siblings)?

Can I get married?

Can I have children?

Here are some general guidelines Wiener has identified for parents to consider as they prepare for the disclosure discussion.

Where do you want to make the disclosure and who should be part of the discussion?  

“You don’t want to have a ton of people there, just those whom the child trusts and feels most comfortable with,” cautioned Wiener. “Try to anticipate the child’s response based on his or her emotional age and maturity. Be careful never to disclose when you’re angry, or during an argument. Have the discussion in a safe, comfortable environment.”

What is the most important message you want your child to walk away with from this discussion?  

Possibilities include: Nothing is going to change… I am just now giving you the name of the virus… We will always be there for you… I will never lie to you… Nothing you did caused this disease.

How exactly will you disclose the actual diagnosis?  

“We have parents write out how they’d like it to happen, and they always start out with, ‘Do you remember?’ Weave in pertinent aspects of the child’s life and pick up the threads of your past discussions about infections,” suggested Wiener. “Rehearse the questions and answers, including ‘How did I get it? Can I get married? Can I have kids? Who else knows about it?’”

If the diagnosis is to be kept secret, who else can the child talk to?  

“If parents tell a child not to tell anyone, the first thing a child will do is go tell someone,” said Wiener. “They’ll feel resentful if they have no one to talk to. Parents need to find others in the community for the child to talk to. If there isn’t anyone nearby and the child wants to tell his or her best friend, I would tell them to talk with me, the parent, first. I would explain that not everyone is as educated as we are, and it’s important that we make a plan and educate the friend about this infection first. After all, we don’t want anyone to treat us badly.”

Give child a journal or diary or a way to express their feelings about the infection.  

Encourage the child to use art or writing to express feelings. “If HIV had a face, what would it look like? Or start a discussion with, ‘If I had a million dollars, I would get rid of this virus. What would you do with a million dollars?’ Keep those discussions going,” Wiener suggested.

“It is usually not until days or weeks after disclosure that the child has the courage to ask more questions,” she added. However, after finally making the disclosure, some parents feel so relieved and so exhausted from the ordeal that they may not have the emotional energy to talk about it again. This blocks open communication at a time when sharing concerns about the disease and its impact on the family is most important.

Red flags to look for in a child following disclosure.  

These include difficulty sleeping, changes in appetite, withdrawal, ticks, new fears, mood changes, difficulty concentrating or hoarding things.

If you see any such problems, talk to your child and if necessary, seek help from a social worker or psychotherapist. Remember, disclosure is not a one-time event and a child needs constant reassurance that they did not cause the disease.

Don’t forget siblings in the disclosure process.

Whether or not a sibling is told depends on age, said Wiener. “If the sibling is close in age, I don’t make it a choice, the sibling must be told. But, I do give them a choice of whether the infected child tells the sibling or if the parents tell the sibling. You need to give the child a sense of control. Living with secrets in the home does not promote a healthy emotional climate. I try to minimize the amount of secrets or lying that’s going on. However, if there’s a medical procedure or if they’re on interferon which makes them grouchy, it’s important that siblings know why.”

Even after disclosure is made, the full reality of the diagnosis may not come about for years. “It may not be until someone dies, or they get sick for the first time or they can’t go to a party and drink like everyone else that the reality really sinks in,” said Wiener. “At that point, it becomes an emotional reality, not just an intellectual reality.”

Wiener finds most parents do feel relief after making disclosure. The burden of secrecy is lifted, and children who already intuitively know something is wrong often feel better after they are told of their diagnosis. Siblings, especially if they are older, are also relieved when the veil of secrecy is lifted.

“The demands of keeping the family secret is a heavy burden for a young sibling and may threaten healthy development,” Wiener wrote in a study of siblings of HIV-infected children. “As inquisitive peers begin asking siblings why their brother or sister is sick, it becomes increasingly difficult not to tell the secret. One 9-year-old girl describes: ‘I want to tell people. Right when I almost say it, I remember in my head I’m not allowed to.’”

Resentment of the special treatment given to the sick sibling may cause the healthy sibling to feel less loved, Wiener explained, particularly if no explanation for the preferential treatment is provided.

Heidi Haiken, who has worked with more than 400 HIV-infected kids, has found disclosure to be beneficial to parents and kids alike. “By and large, the kids do well and are glad they’ve been told,” she said.

But disclosure is just a step in the journey. Parents must be prepared to ask, probe and continue the dialogue about health safety, standard precautions, medical treatments, good nutrition and the fundamentals of safer sex with their infected children.

“In our program, we start teaching safer sex at age 10 to 13,” said Haiken. “We give out condoms, talk about masturbation and how to keep yourself and your partner safe. We don’t deny they’re sexual beings, we focus on how to be safe with it, how drugs and alcohol can make you do things that aren’t safe.”

That safer sex discussion is just one more elaboration on the discussion that began when parents tell their infected toddlers never to touch anyone’s “boo-boos.”

Most parents of infected children and teens don’t have a Heidi Haiken or Lori Wiener in their hometowns. And, they can’t count on local schools to teach standard precautions or to delve into the nitty gritty of safer sex procedures. Most parents must be open and honest as they continue these discussions, no matter how painful or awkward, throughout their children’s lives.

By PKIDs staff





Pink Eye!

12 01 2012

Evening time. Your little moppet is fed, bathed, and snuggled ‘neath her blanket. You bend to kiss her nose and then, because your mother did the same, you gently press your cheek against your child’s and exchange butterfly kisses.

This is also known as giving (or getting) the gift of pink eye.

In case you haven’t yet experienced it, pink eye is when your eye becomes pink or red because it’s irritated or inflamed.

We all have a thin membrane that covers the inside of our eyelids and the whites of our eyes – it’s called the conjunctiva. When it becomes inflamed or irritated, we have a case of conjunctivitis. Also known as pink eye.

Lots of non-infectious agents can irritate the conjunctiva and cause our eye to get pink. If we’re allergic to pollen or pet dander, that can give us pink eye. Sometimes the chlorine in pools will do the same.

We can also pick up a bacterial or viral infection that results in pink eye and is infectious, easily spreading person to person. That’s the one that is the gift of the butterfly kiss, should one of the eyes doing the kissing be infected.

Prevention is easy, mostly it’s about not touching your eyes with unclean hands and not sharing any items that have been near an infected person’s eye, such as pillowcases, towels, makeup. You get the idea.

If you have pink eye, do all of the above, and don’t use the same eye dropper or bottle on infected and uninfected eyes, as it’s a good way to ensure both of your eyes become infected. And, CDC says to stay out of swimming pools.

Treatment of conjunctivitis depends entirely on the cause of the irritation. If it’s viral, the symptoms are treated and antivirals may be used for severe cases.

Bacterial infections will probably receive antibiotics and treatment to alleviate the discomfort.

It’s best to check with your provider for specifics, and to make sure and revisit the clinic under these circumstances noted by CDC:

  • Conjunctivitis is accompanied by moderate to severe pain in the eye(s).
  • Conjunctivitis is accompanied by vision problems, such as sensitivity to light or blurred vision, that does not improve when any discharge that is present is wiped from the eye(s).
  • Conjunctivitis is accompanied by intense redness in the eye(s).
  • Conjunctivitis symptoms become worse or persist when a patient is suspected of having a severe form of viral conjunctivitis—for example, a type caused by herpes simplex virus or varicella-zoster virus (the cause of chickenpox and shingles).
  • Conjunctivitis occurs in a patient who is immunocompromised (has a weakened immune system) from HIV infection, cancer treatment, or other medical conditions or treatments.
  • Bacterial conjunctivitis is being treated with antibiotics and does not begin to improve after 24 hours of treatment.

One of the best methods of disease prevention (and not just pink eye) is to keep our hands clean and not touch our noses, eyes, or mouth.

I have to confess that, although my teenager no longer tolerates butterfly kisses, my tweener loves them. As long as the whites of her eyes remain, well, white, we will share that bedtime ritual. But, I do perform a quick inspection as I’m leaning in, just in case.

By Trish Parnell

Image courtesy of littlenelly





It’s a Rap

9 01 2012

(Written in the spirit of fun and, oh yes, Happy New Year!)

My New Year’s resolution shouldn’t bring no retribution ‘cause I’m talkin’ diminution of disease.

I wanna get the word out that a vax can be the knockout of that thing that takes you right down to your knees.

There ain’t no use in lyin’ it can hurt you ‘til you’re cryin’ and you may go into hidin’ from nursies.

But if you are a brave one and you wait until they’re all done you’ll be superhero topgun wait and see.

We’re almost at the finish let me just say I have one wish that is sure to bring you all up short you see.

This year I’d like to make it through and manage not to take from you a boatload of your nasty old cooties.

(Rewrites are welcome! Send us your version or something entirely new and we’ll post it!)