London!

9 07 2012

Are you going to London for the OlympicsI lived in Calgary when the Games were held there. It’s chaos and fun and nothing like you’d expect, if you’ve never been.

You’ll meet people and germs from scores of countries—about 11 million people, to be specific, and each one teeming with his or her own microbes. Olympics health director Brian McCloskey says they’re ready to go and will be on the lookout primarily for GI bugs “and infectious diseases such as measles.”

Want to bring home souvenirs that won’t make you sick? Use this CDC piece as a checklist on staying healthy in London during the Olympics:

Be Up-to-Date on Your Jabs

Some illnesses that are very rare in the United States, such as measles, may be common in other countries. Make sure that you and any children traveling with you have had all shots. Even if you had all routine vaccines as a child, ask your doctor if you need a tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis booster.

Watch Out for that Lorry!

In the United States, you’re taught to look left, look right, and look left again before you cross the road. In England, however, they drive on the left side of the road. That means you should always look right, look left, and look right again to avoid stepping into the path of traffic driving on the left.

Get Thee to an A&E

If you get hit by a lorry, don’t call 911, call 999, and don’t ask to be taken to the ER, ask for the A&E (Accident and Emergency). Only call 999 in the event of a serious illness or injury. For cuts and scrapes, muscle strains, or minor illnesses, visit a pharmacy or walk-in center (no appointment needed). To find a pharmacy or walk-in center, visit www.nhs.uk/London2012  or call 0845-4647.

Note that the health insurance that covers you in the United States probably won’t cover you while you’re overseas, so you may have to pay out-of-pocket for any care you receive in London. Consider purchasing travel health insurance that will reimburse you for any costs you incur.

Go on Holiday (But Not from Healthy Habits)

Have a great time in London, and make sure you take your healthy habits with you:

  • Always wear a seatbelt.
  • Wash hands frequently, or use hand sanitizer.
  • Cough and sneeze into a tissue or your sleeve (not your hand).
  • When outdoors during the day, wear sunscreen, stay hydrated, and seek shade if you get too hot.
  • When indoors or at large events, know where emergency exits are.
  • If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation.
  • Use latex condoms, if you have sex.

Speak Like a Native

Some terms, including health-related terms, differ between British English and American English. Be familiar with these to avoid confusion if you need medical care.

British English/American English

  • A&E (Accident and Emergency)/ER (Emergency Room), ED (Emergency Department)
  • Chemist/Pharmacist
  • Consultant/Attending Physician
  • Giddy/Dizzy, Unbalanced
  • Gip (“My back is giving me gip.”)/Aches, Pains (“My back hurts.”)
  • Holiday/Vacation
  • Jabs/Shots, Vaccinations
  • Lorry/Truck
  • Loo/Restroom
  • Paracetamol/Acetaminophen
  • Plaster, Elastoplast/Elastic Bandage, Band-Aid
  • Surgery/Doctor’s Office
  • Surgical Spirit/Rubbing Alcohol

More Information

Thanks to CDC for excellent info, as always.

Image courtesy of Flickr user kh1234567890





Ask Emily

26 04 2012

What’s the deadliest infectious disease ever and what currently is the most deadly infectious disease?

The answer to this question is more complex than simply counting up numbers of people who die from infection. For example, diseases like measles and smallpox have proved to be far deadlier in some populations—such as Native Americans—than in others, because of population differences in disease resistance.

Another variable is intensity of the illness a pathogen causes. Influenza comes in many forms of virulence, and as the Spanish flu pandemic of the early 20th century made clear, even that virulence can vary depending on specific population features; the Spanish flu, which took an estimated 50 million lives, killed the young most relentlessly.

Even an individual disease vector can wax and wane in terms of how virulent it is or which tissues it invades. For example, Yersinia pestis, the bacterium responsible for the infamous Black Death that swept through Europe in the 14th century, may vary over time in its virulence and is far more deadly when transmitted as an aerosol to lung tissues than when it invades the lymph and causes the bubos that characterize it.

Another issue is, how do we calculate “deadliest?” Is it in terms of sheer overall numbers, or do we calculate it in terms of how many people it kills among the number infected? For the sake of addressing this question, let’s talk about both.

Historically, in terms of sheer numbers, the deadliest diseases were smallpox, measles, tuberculosis, plague (e.g., the Black Plague), and malaria. According to a handy Website, the Book of Odds, which calculates odds for us, measles has killed about 200 million people worldwide in the last 150 years and still kills hundreds of thousands in the developing world. Thanks to vaccines, the odds of contracting measles in the United States today are very low unless you are an unvaccinated person living in areas where vaccine uptake is low.

The story on smallpox is similar—it may have killed more people by percent or sheer numbers than any other infectious disease in history, including 300 million in the 20th century alone by some estimates. Yet smallpox as an infectious disease no longer exists thanks to its total elimination through vaccine campaigns.

Thus, along with the plague, smallpox and measles have, for millennia, been the historical killers of humans and would still be among the deadliest infectious diseases today were it not for vaccines. What we have left are some old killers on the list—tuberculosis and malaria—and a newer entity, HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.

We have yet to develop efficient vaccines against any of them. According to USAID, in terms of absolute numbers of deaths, AIDS kills the most people each year, with 2.8 million AIDS-related deaths in 2004, followed by tuberculosis and malaria.

Indeed, AIDS and tuberculosis are often co-conspirators in death, as infection with the HIV virus makes people 20 to 30 times more likely to develop active TB with TB infection. Research for vaccines against HIV and malaria has been feverish but as-yet incompletely successful, one reason these diseases remain the top global killers.

But what about the deadliest disease in terms of how many of infected people die? In the absence of effective treatment, HIV might be one candidate. But the ones that come first to mind are the viruses that cause fast-moving hemorrhagic fevers, such as the Marburg or Ebola viruses.

The Marburg virus, named for the location of the first outbreak and a virus that may reside without symptoms in fruit bats, has caused death rates as high as 90% in some areas, although the average is 23–25%. It is a filovirus, in the same viral family as the five Ebola viruses. One of the Ebola viruses, Ebola-Reston, is perhaps the most notorious of the hemorrhagic fever viruses, having led to death rates as high as 89% in outbreaks.

A near-100% mortality rate is about as deadly as an infectious agent can be if that’s the measure of “deadly” we’re using.

By Emily Willingham

Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons





Telling Our Kids They’re Infected With Hepatitis or HIV

16 01 2012

If hearing your child is infected with HIV or hepatitis B or C is the worst that can happen to a parent, telling your child about the infection runs a close second.

When should a parent disclose? How should they tell them? What will a child ask? Will they ever forgive the parents who infected them? Are silence and secrecy justified to protect a child from a painful diagnosis?

Two pioneers who have peered into the disclosure cauldron are Lori W. Wiener, coordinator of the Pediatric HIV Psycho-Social Support and Research Program at the National Institutes of Health, and Heidi Haiken, coordinator of Social Work at the Francois Xavier Bagnoud Center in Newark, N.J., an innovative program that works with parents and children with HIV.

For more than 10 years, Haiken and Wiener have worked with hundreds of families infected with and affected by HIV on the emotional and social issues related to the disease. Wiener, who has a PhD, has researched and written about the impact of disclosure on family members.

Their combined experiences have produced two cardinal rules for parents of children infected with chronic, viral infectious diseases:

  1. Never lie. You don’t have to name the disease if children are very young, but never, never lie. The damage to the parent-child relationship will surpass any short-lived benefits gained by deceit.
  2. Disclose as early as you can, especially once kids start asking questions. The longer you wait, the harder it gets and the greater your chance of undermining your child’s trust in you.

“We even tell parents who come to the center that if they don’t tell the kids by the time they reach sexual maturity, we will,” Haiken said. “But of course it’s much, much healthier to have this information come from the parents.”

Both women acknowledge that disclosing is very traumatic for parents. “For some parents, it’s just devastating,” said Haiken. “They feel guilt because they infected the child because of their past sexual behavior or drug use. They feel guilt that the child has to suffer. Even for parents of children who contracted it from transfusions or are adopted, disclosure is extremely difficult.”

Wiener, who has written several research papers on this topic, found the longer parents withheld the diagnosis, the more embedded the lies became and the harder it became to disclose the truth. “Parents often fear that once they disclose new and different information, that their child will no longer trust them,” she said. “Following disclosure, many of these children feel embarrassed that other people in their family have been aware of the diagnosis before they had been informed. Once disclosure takes place, these issues and feelings can be successfully dealt with in individual and group counseling sessions with parents and children.”

Haiken and other social workers at the center work hard to help parents work through their guilt, or at least face it without flinching, before they disclose.

“I tell them you didn’t mean for this to happen, it’s clear you never wanted to hurt your child, look at all the wonderful things you’ve done for your child,” said Haiken. “After a while they get there, they see it, but it’s still very difficult. No parent ever wants to infect her child. It’s something they felt they had no control over.”

In terms of disclosure, parents who are themselves living with HIV have additional challenges to face. They fear disclosing their own life-threatening disease to their children. But generally, says Wiener, by the time children reach ages 6 to 10, they realize the consequence and finality of death. It is useless to shield children this age from the knowledge that their parents have a serious or terminal illness.

The disclosure process, timetable and style are often dictated by the parents’ health. Can they focus on their kids and execute disclosure, or are their own health problems overwhelming? Are they getting the support and time they need or are their own medications, insurance forms and other factors too overwhelming?

“Foster or adoptive parents have the luxury of not having to worry about their own illnesses, so the emotional and financial stress on the entire family may not be as intense,” noted Haiken.

The journey to disclosure begins early, says Wiener. “The child and parent should first have a sense of trust—that is the highest priority.” Disclosure occurs little by little in age-appropriate ways as soon as a child can communicate. Just like talking about adoption, it’s always on the table, though not all the details or medical terms may be exposed just yet.

Ideally, when the parent discloses the conversation should go something like this, suggests Wiener.

“Do you remember when I told you that you had a germ in your blood? That’s why we have blood work done every year. (And) Do you remember I told you that you got the germ from blood? Well, that germ is a virus that is called HIV or hepatitis….”

“You see, the disclosure dialogue is a constant building process,” she said. “If the child asks why the parent didn’t tell them earlier, the parent needs to be able to say, ‘I never lied to you, I told you what was wrong, I just hadn’t told you name of the virus.”

It may take a child weeks, months or years to absorb the diagnosis. “Try to be where the child is at when they ask questions,” wrote Wiener. “Let the child know that no matter how difficult the subject matter, he or she can always ask questions or share feelings. Be careful, however, not to provide more information than the child wants or is prepared for. They may not be ready for a virology discussion.

“You never want to be in the position of telling a 12 year-old about his or her disease that you have never even referred to before,” she added. “That is my main concern in the disclosure process. We’ve interviewed a lot of children who have been disclosed to. Most felt they had been told at the right age and by the right person except those whose parents had a doctor tell them. Those were the only kids who remained upset about the disclosure process.”

At NIH, counselors work intensely with parents of HIV-infected children to prepare them for the disclosure discussion. Social workers even have parents write out what they will tell their children and then play the part of the child in role-play situations. Generally, parents should be prepared to answer the following questions, depending on the child’s age and development. (Some questions apply if the parent is infected also.)

Why did this happen to you?

Where did you get it from?

Are you going to die?

Am I the reason you got sick?

Who else in the family has it?

Why do I have it?

Why don’t (siblings) have it?

Am I going to die?

Will this hurt?

Who else knows I have this?

Who can I tell?

What will happen to me and (siblings)?

Can I get married?

Can I have children?

Here are some general guidelines Wiener has identified for parents to consider as they prepare for the disclosure discussion.

Where do you want to make the disclosure and who should be part of the discussion?  

“You don’t want to have a ton of people there, just those whom the child trusts and feels most comfortable with,” cautioned Wiener. “Try to anticipate the child’s response based on his or her emotional age and maturity. Be careful never to disclose when you’re angry, or during an argument. Have the discussion in a safe, comfortable environment.”

What is the most important message you want your child to walk away with from this discussion?  

Possibilities include: Nothing is going to change… I am just now giving you the name of the virus… We will always be there for you… I will never lie to you… Nothing you did caused this disease.

How exactly will you disclose the actual diagnosis?  

“We have parents write out how they’d like it to happen, and they always start out with, ‘Do you remember?’ Weave in pertinent aspects of the child’s life and pick up the threads of your past discussions about infections,” suggested Wiener. “Rehearse the questions and answers, including ‘How did I get it? Can I get married? Can I have kids? Who else knows about it?’”

If the diagnosis is to be kept secret, who else can the child talk to?  

“If parents tell a child not to tell anyone, the first thing a child will do is go tell someone,” said Wiener. “They’ll feel resentful if they have no one to talk to. Parents need to find others in the community for the child to talk to. If there isn’t anyone nearby and the child wants to tell his or her best friend, I would tell them to talk with me, the parent, first. I would explain that not everyone is as educated as we are, and it’s important that we make a plan and educate the friend about this infection first. After all, we don’t want anyone to treat us badly.”

Give child a journal or diary or a way to express their feelings about the infection.  

Encourage the child to use art or writing to express feelings. “If HIV had a face, what would it look like? Or start a discussion with, ‘If I had a million dollars, I would get rid of this virus. What would you do with a million dollars?’ Keep those discussions going,” Wiener suggested.

“It is usually not until days or weeks after disclosure that the child has the courage to ask more questions,” she added. However, after finally making the disclosure, some parents feel so relieved and so exhausted from the ordeal that they may not have the emotional energy to talk about it again. This blocks open communication at a time when sharing concerns about the disease and its impact on the family is most important.

Red flags to look for in a child following disclosure.  

These include difficulty sleeping, changes in appetite, withdrawal, ticks, new fears, mood changes, difficulty concentrating or hoarding things.

If you see any such problems, talk to your child and if necessary, seek help from a social worker or psychotherapist. Remember, disclosure is not a one-time event and a child needs constant reassurance that they did not cause the disease.

Don’t forget siblings in the disclosure process.

Whether or not a sibling is told depends on age, said Wiener. “If the sibling is close in age, I don’t make it a choice, the sibling must be told. But, I do give them a choice of whether the infected child tells the sibling or if the parents tell the sibling. You need to give the child a sense of control. Living with secrets in the home does not promote a healthy emotional climate. I try to minimize the amount of secrets or lying that’s going on. However, if there’s a medical procedure or if they’re on interferon which makes them grouchy, it’s important that siblings know why.”

Even after disclosure is made, the full reality of the diagnosis may not come about for years. “It may not be until someone dies, or they get sick for the first time or they can’t go to a party and drink like everyone else that the reality really sinks in,” said Wiener. “At that point, it becomes an emotional reality, not just an intellectual reality.”

Wiener finds most parents do feel relief after making disclosure. The burden of secrecy is lifted, and children who already intuitively know something is wrong often feel better after they are told of their diagnosis. Siblings, especially if they are older, are also relieved when the veil of secrecy is lifted.

“The demands of keeping the family secret is a heavy burden for a young sibling and may threaten healthy development,” Wiener wrote in a study of siblings of HIV-infected children. “As inquisitive peers begin asking siblings why their brother or sister is sick, it becomes increasingly difficult not to tell the secret. One 9-year-old girl describes: ‘I want to tell people. Right when I almost say it, I remember in my head I’m not allowed to.’”

Resentment of the special treatment given to the sick sibling may cause the healthy sibling to feel less loved, Wiener explained, particularly if no explanation for the preferential treatment is provided.

Heidi Haiken, who has worked with more than 400 HIV-infected kids, has found disclosure to be beneficial to parents and kids alike. “By and large, the kids do well and are glad they’ve been told,” she said.

But disclosure is just a step in the journey. Parents must be prepared to ask, probe and continue the dialogue about health safety, standard precautions, medical treatments, good nutrition and the fundamentals of safer sex with their infected children.

“In our program, we start teaching safer sex at age 10 to 13,” said Haiken. “We give out condoms, talk about masturbation and how to keep yourself and your partner safe. We don’t deny they’re sexual beings, we focus on how to be safe with it, how drugs and alcohol can make you do things that aren’t safe.”

That safer sex discussion is just one more elaboration on the discussion that began when parents tell their infected toddlers never to touch anyone’s “boo-boos.”

Most parents of infected children and teens don’t have a Heidi Haiken or Lori Wiener in their hometowns. And, they can’t count on local schools to teach standard precautions or to delve into the nitty gritty of safer sex procedures. Most parents must be open and honest as they continue these discussions, no matter how painful or awkward, throughout their children’s lives.

By PKIDs staff





It’s a Rap

9 01 2012

(Written in the spirit of fun and, oh yes, Happy New Year!)

My New Year’s resolution shouldn’t bring no retribution ‘cause I’m talkin’ diminution of disease.

I wanna get the word out that a vax can be the knockout of that thing that takes you right down to your knees.

There ain’t no use in lyin’ it can hurt you ‘til you’re cryin’ and you may go into hidin’ from nursies.

But if you are a brave one and you wait until they’re all done you’ll be superhero topgun wait and see.

We’re almost at the finish let me just say I have one wish that is sure to bring you all up short you see.

This year I’d like to make it through and manage not to take from you a boatload of your nasty old cooties.

(Rewrites are welcome! Send us your version or something entirely new and we’ll post it!)





Annie’s Dad

17 10 2011

(This testimony was given on behalf of PKIDs to a U.S. House of Representatives’ committee a few years ago. It is so compelling—and, unfortunately, still relevant—that we wanted to share it with you now.)

My name is Dr. Keith Van Zandt, and as a practicing family physician, I appreciate the opportunity to address this committee regarding hepatitis B vaccines. I have degrees from Princeton and Wake Forest Universities, and completed residency training in family medicine here in Washington at Andrews AFB.

Today, however, I am here as a dad. I have five children, two of whom my wife Dede and I adopted from Romania. Our youngest, Adrianna, was nearly four years old when we adopted her from the orphanage, and was found to have chronic active hepatitis B when we performed blood work prior to bringing her home.

She had contracted this from her mother, who died when Annie was nine months old, from the effects of her liver disease as well as tuberculosis. We have been very fortunate to have had some excellent medical care for Annie, but her first year with us was an endless procession of liver biopsies, blood draws and over 150 painful interferon injections I gave to my new daughter at home. Interferon is a form of chemotherapy for hepatitis B that has many side effects and only a 25 to 40% success rate.

We know first-hand the pain and family disruption this completely preventable disease can bring.

You have already heard testimony from some of the world’s leading experts on hepatitis B and its vaccine, and I can add little new information to that. As a family doctor, though, I see patients every day whose lives have been significantly improved by the immunizations we now have available. My forebears in family medicine struggled in the pre-vaccination era with the ravages of horrible diseases that are now of only historical interest.

Preventive immunizations have so changed our world that I am afraid that we no longer remember how horrible some of these diseases were. My family and I have made multiple trips to Romania to work in the orphanages, and unfortunately I have seen the effects of many of these diseases there.

I am certainly aware of the potential for adverse reactions to our current vaccines, but we must maintain the perspective that these reactions are extremely rare. My partners and I in Winston-Salem care for over 40,000 patients, and I can honestly say that in over 20 years of practice we have never seen a serious adverse reaction to any vaccine. I believe that the vast majority of family physicians around the country can say the same. Certainly, I do not wish to minimize the suffering and losses of families who have experienced these problems, but we must remember that immunizations remain the most powerful and cost-effective means of preventing disease in the modern era.

Personally, it still sickens me to know that the disease my daughter has was completely preventable if hepatitis B vaccines had been available to Annie and her mother.

Whereas 90% of adults who contract hepatitis B get better, 90% of children under the age of one go on to have chronic disease, and 15 to 20% of them die prematurely of cirrhosis or liver cancer.

I know first-hand the gut-wrenching feeling of being told your child has a chronic disease that could shorter their life. I know first-hand the worry parents feel when their hepatitis B child falls on the playground, and you don’t know if her bleeding knee or bloody nose will infect her playmates or teachers. I know first-hand the concern for my other children’s health, with a 1 in 20 chance of household spread of hepatitis, and the thankfulness I feel that they have had the availability of successful vaccines. I know first-hand the pain a parent feels for their child as they undergo painful shots and procedures for their chronic disease with no guarantee of cure.

I am not the world’s leading expert on hepatitis B or the hep B vaccine, but I am an expert on delivering the best medical care I can to my patients in Winston-Salem, NC. I am also not the world’s leading expert on parenting children with chronic diseases, but I am the world’s best expert on parenting my five children.

I know professionally that immunizations in general have hugely improved the lives of those patients who have entrusted their medical care to me. I know personally that had the hepatitis B vaccine been available to my daughter, her life and mine would have been drastically different. I am also thankful that my other children have been spared Annie’s suffering by being successfully vaccinated.

Anecdotes of vaccine reactions are very moving, but they are no substitute for good science. Please allow me to continue to provide the best medical care I can with the best system of vaccinations in the world, and allow me to keep my own family safe.

Thank you very much for your time.

Keith Van Zandt, M.D.





Mary Margaret’s Legacy

22 09 2011

My dad’s sister, Mary Margaret, died at age nine from laryngeal diphtheria.

One of the things Dad and I talked about when I became an immunization coalition coordinator was whether he would mind if I told his sister’s story in my work. He felt if her tragic story would help prevent anyone from losing a child to a vaccine-preventable disease, then it would be a wonderful tribute to her and it’d give her short life even more purpose.

Mary Margaret died a week before Christmas, 1927, after contracting diphtheria from schoolmates. This was three years before the diphtheria vaccine was available in the area, according to my grandmother’s recollection that came down to me through my dad.

She had home care by family, and a visit from a doc who visited the poor families, so they worried that maybe she could have had a more timely diagnosis and better care.

After her death, the family was put out of the house by the local board of health, and the house was roped off with a “do not cross” type of line and sulphur candles were burned in the house to rid it of any leftover contagion. They were treated like lepers.

Our family is and was Catholic.  Mary Margaret was allowed no funeral service (no stopping by the church) on the way to the cemetery located nine miles outside of Tulsa, Oklahoma. No last benediction or funeral rites from the church were given to her because of the contagious aspect of the disease. The grave wasn’t even marked until 1960, when my dad and his brother visited the cemetery to make arrangements for their mother’s burial. They were horrified to find it unmarked and ordered not one but two stones.

There was no money in 1927 for the family to mark it—the family, like most at the time, was living on the edge of poverty.

The summer after Mary Margaret died, my dad and uncle (ages four and five) were put on the train to Kansas City with notes pinned to their collars to let them off at Union Station there, as their aunt would pick them up and keep them for the summer—a rough summer for their parents who needed a break.

My grandparents coped as best they could, but my dad said he and his brother never saw the same sparkle in their parents’ eyes, and they couldn’t bring it back by themselves no matter how hard they tried.

Grandpa continued to work long hours as a baker, but coped by drinking. Grandma just carried on, never sharing her grief with the boys and never complaining.

My mother once talked to my grandfather (her father-in-law) about his daughter’s death, and it was the only time he said anything to her about it.

“For Christmas that year, my daughter had asked for a music box; instead, I had to buy a wooden box to bury her in,” he said, and then cried.

I have told Mary Margaret’s story to people occasionally since I have been the TAIC coalition Coordinator, and I have to tell you, even though my own grown sons are familiar with it, one of my daughters-in-law (and her mother) have bought into the false information about immunizations collected from the Internet and through their homeschooling network.

No matter what I can respectfully, carefully, or diplomatically say or try to teach, their attitudes of distrust about immunizations cannot be changed. So, their children, my grandchildren, remain unimmunized, much to my anguish.

On a cheery note, I can see the photo of Mary Margaret, the aunt I never knew, with that wonderfully whimsical orange clown nose on her face in celebration of Orange Nose Day.

And Grandma? She probably would have wanted to see something hopeful and meaningful come from the sharing of her daughter’s story. Maybe by relating our family’s story, today’s parents will realize just how serious vaccine-preventable diseases are, and make good, timely decisions about having their children properly immunized. Grandma would be AMAZED to know that several cancers can now be prevented with vaccines!

As to the diphtheria vaccine and my dad and uncle? When it was available in 1930 at the Tulsa Board of Health, Dad said his mother couldn’t get them there FAST ENOUGH to get both boys immunized. She wasn’t going to lose any more of her children to a preventable disease.

By Kathy Sebert, RN, BA/Coordinator, Tulsa Area Immunization Coalition & Tulsa Health Department employee





ECBT – Two Decades

8 09 2011

Every Child By Two (ECBT) celebrates its 20th anniversary this year. Former First Lady Rosalynn Carter and Former First Lady of Arkansas Betty Bumpers started ECBT with two goals: “. . . [to] raise awareness of the critical need for timely immunizations and to foster a systematic way to immunize all of America’s children by age two.”

ECBT offers a lot of direction to various segments of the population. For parents, they have sections on vaccine safety, tips on paying for vaccines, and descriptions of vaccines and the diseases they prevent.

Immunization advocates can find a huge amount of information on ECBT’s website, including surveys, reports, links, and a long list of national and regional resources.

Immunization registries are at the heart of ECBT’s work and they feature on their website how-tos, detailed explanations of registry benefits, and other tools helpful to those investigating such start-ups.

Healthcare professionals aren’t forgotten! They can find many links to patient educational materials and to strategies to improve vaccination rates.

Bringing Immunity To Every Community is an eLearning course developed by ECBT in partnership with the Colorado Foundation for Medical Care and the American Nurses Association and is worth checking out.

In the past few years, ECBT has created a second website, Vaccinate Your Baby, and a blog called Shot of Prevention. Vaccinate Your Baby is based on an awareness campaign of the safety of vaccines and the need to keep children’s immunization rates high. Actress Amanda Peet has been an ardent spokeswoman for ECBT and immunization and has kept the momentum going on this campaign.

The blog, Shot of Prevention, is led by Christine Vara, and has been both a leader in the arena of immunization blogs and a lightning rod for those with strong opinions. But they do love it when folks take time to comment on posts, so stop by when you have a minute to read these thoughtful opinion pieces.

It’s true that we’re fans of the people at ECBT, but for good cause. Kids would not be so well-protected today if, 20 years ago, two strong women hadn’t taken it upon themselves to lead the nation in immunizing our young.

Amy Pisani, Rich Greenaway and Jennifer Zavolinsky get up and go to work each day at ECBT, and because they do, they make the jobs of other immunization advocates so much easier. Thanks to all of you.

By Trish Parnell